Scientific papers and articles
What big Pharma should know about Animal Testing
Robert Matthews June 2010
S Farnaud (2010) Developing human-related approached to understand and cure Parkinson’s Disease
The Independent Newspaper Parkinson’s supplement 23 August 2010 (additional copies to be distributed at World Parkinson Congress 2010)
South Eastern Observer Issue 28
South Wales and Three Counties Times September 2010
G Langley & S Farnaud (2010) Opinion: Microdosing: safer clinical trials and fewer animal tests
Bioanalysis, March 2010, Vol. 2, No. 3, Pages 393-395
S Farnaud (2009) The DHT 39 years of replacement science.
ATLA 37, Supplement, 39–43
Buckland G (2009). The 3Rs call on science.
Laboratory News November 2009
Farnaud S (2009). The evolution of the 3Rs.
Abstract: Whilst the whole world is celebrating the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the 150th anniversary of the publication of his renowned book, The Origin of Species, another anniversary should not be forgotten – the publication of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch. The concomitance of the anniversaries of the two publications is not a coincidence, since, as reflected by the numerous quotes chosen by Russell from Darwin’s masterpiece, numerous analogies can be found between the two works and the new ideas they describe. From a discrete birth, and after decades of struggle, the Three Rs concept can now celebrate its 50th anniversary, the result of its evolution through harsh selection and adaptation. The emergence of new types of techniques, in combination with the descent of modified old ones, testify to the undeniable change in our society toward a more efficient and more ethical science, through the progressive replacement of animal models. Both Darwin and Russell would no doubt have welcomed such progress, not only in terms of science, but also of moral values. One could also expect that, if Russell could have foreseen the incredible technological advances achieved 50 years later, where Replacement becomes a reality, as illustrated by some edifying examples, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique would have probably been defined as the One R concept. 2009 FRAME.
Langley G (2009). La validité de l’expérimentation animale en recherche médicale.
Revue Semestrielle de Droit Animalier – RSDA 1:161-168
Translation: The validity of animal experiments in medical research.
Langley CK, Aziz Q, Bountra C et al (2008). Volunteer studies in pain research – Opportunities and challenges to replace animal experiments. The report and recommendations of a Focus on Alternatives workshop.
Abstract: Despite considerable research, effective and safe treatments for human pain disorders remain elusive. Understanding the biology of different human pain conditions and researching effective treatments continue to be dominated by animal models, some of which are of limited value. British and European legislation demands that non-animal approaches should be considered before embarking on research using experimental animals. Recent scientific and technical developments, particularly in human neuroimaging, offer the potential to replace some animal procedures in the study of human pain. A group of pain research experts from academia and industry met with the aim of exploring creatively the tools, strategies and challenges of replacing some animal experiments in pain research with ethically conducted studies of human patients and healthy volunteers, in combination with in vitro methods. This report considers how a range of neuroimaging techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography, singly and combined, can address human pain conditions. In addition, microdialysis in human subjects; genome-wide association research, twin studies and other epidemiological approaches; and in vitro cell and tissue research, are examined for their replacement potential in combination with neuroimaging. Recommendations highlight further opportunities to advance the replacement of animal studies with robust methods of relevance to understanding and treating human pain.
Taylor K, Gordon N, Langley G et al (2008). Estimates for worldwide animal use in 2005.
Abstract: Animal experimentation continues to generate public and political concern worldwide. Relatively few countries collate and publish animal use statistics, yet this is a first and essential step toward public accountability and an informed debate, as well as being important for effective policy-making and regulation. The implementation of the Three Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments) should be expected to result in a decline in animal use, but without regular, accurate statistics, this cannot be monitored. Recent estimates of worldwide annual laboratory animal use are imprecise and unsubstantiated, ranging from 28–100 million. We collated data for 37 countries that publish national statistics, and standardised these against the definitions of ‘animals’, ‘purposes’ and ‘experiments’ used in European Union Directive 86/609/EEC. We developed and applied a statistical model, based on publication rates, for a further 142 countries. This yielded our most conservative estimate of global animal use: 58.3 million animals in 179 countries. However, this figure excludes several uses and forms of animals that are included in the statistics of some countries. With the data available, albeit for only a few countries, we also produced, by extrapolation, a more comprehensive global estimate that includes animals killed for the provision of tissues, animals used to maintain genetically modified strains, and animals bred for laboratory use but killed as surplus to requirements. For a number of reasons that are explained, this more comprehensive figure of 115.3 million animals is still likely to be an underestimate.
Langley G (2008). Cancer and wound healing – in-vitro insights.
Laboratory News January 2008:14-15.
Langley G (2008). Reply to Festing (correspondence).
Langley G, Evans T, Holgate ST et al (2007). Replacing animal experiments: Choices, chances and challenges.
Abstract: Replacing animal procedures with methods such as cells and tissues in vitro, volunteer studies, physicochemical techniques and computer modelling, is driven by legislative, scientific and moral imperatives. Non-animal approaches are now considered as advanced methods which can overcome many of the limitations of animal experiments. In testing medicines and chemicals, in vitro assays have spared hundreds of thousands of animals. In contrast, academic animal use continues to rise and the concept of replacement seems less well accepted in university research. Even so, some animal procedures have been replaced in neurological, reproductive and dentistry research and progress is being made in fields such as respiratory illnesses, pain and sepsis. Systematic reviews of the transferability of animal data to the clinical setting may encourage a fresh look for novel non-animal methods, and as mainstream funding becomes available, more advances in replacement are expected.
Gordon N & Langley G (2007). Comment on the Talking Points in EMBO Reports.
EMBO Reports 8:794.
Langley G & Newman C (2007). Poster presented at the 2007 stakeholder meeting at the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, January 2007.
Abstract: Three success stories in replacing animal experiments and advancing medicine are described: computer simulations in reproductive physiology; novel imaging and related techniques applied to volunteers in CNS research; and the development of mass spectral patterns to identify bacterial strains in disease control.
Coecke S, Blaauboer BJ, Elaut G et al (2005). Toxicokinetics and Metabolism. In: Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Cosmetics Testing: Current Status and Future Prospects. A report prepared in the context of the 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive.
ATLA 33 (Suppl. 1):147-175.
Diembeck W, Eskes C, Heylings JR et al (2005). Skin Absorption and Penetration. In: Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Cosmetics Testing: Current Status and Future Prospects. A report prepared in the context of the 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive.
ATLA 33(Suppl. 1):105-107.
Langley C, Brock C, Brouwer G et al (2005). Opportunities to replace the use of animals in sepsis research. The report and recommendations of a Focus on Alternatives Workshop.
Abstract: Sepsis and multiple organ failure are common causes of death in patients admitted to intensive care units. The incidence of sepsis and associated mortalities has been steadily increasing over the past 20 years. Sepsis is a complex inflammatory condition, the precise causes of which are still poorly understood. Animal models of sepsis have the potential to cause substantial suffering, and many of them have been poorly representative of the human syndrome. However, a number of non-animal approaches, including in vitro, in silico and clinical studies, show promise for addressing this situation. This report is based on discussions held at an expert workshop convened by Focus on Alternatives and held in 2004 at the Wellcome Trust, London. It provides an overview of some non-animal approaches to sepsis research, including their strengths and weaknesses, and argues that they should be prioritised for further development.
Newman C (2005). Replacement of animal experiments is the ultimate aim.
School Science Review, 87:115-120.
Brock C, Langley G & Newman C (2004). Report of a meeting to discuss a National Centre for the Replacement of Animal Experiments.
Abstract: Following the publication of their joint proposal for a National Centre for the Replacement of Animals In Experiments in 2002, the Dr Hadwen Trust and the Lord Dowding Fund organised a meeting, held on 18 November 2003 at Portcullis House, Westminster, in London, in order to discuss the concept further. A one-page summary of their proposal is attached as an appendix, and full copies are available from the Lord Dowding Fund and the Dr Hadwen Trust. The meeting aimed to discuss the need to stimulate and promote research to replace animal experiments by means of a National Centre (a coordinating body), and how this should be established and funded. Participants, numbering about 80 in total, included politicians (national and European), government officials, scientists, funding bodies and animal welfare representatives. this report is a summary of the issues raised by speakers and other participants at the meeting.
Newman C (2003). Serum-free cell culture – the ethical, scientific and economic choice.
The Biomedical Scientist 47:941-942.
Langley G (2003). The Case Against the Use of Animals in Medical Experiments. In: R Levinson & MJ Reiss (eds), Key Issues in Bioethics: A guide for teachers.
London: RoutledgeFalmer. ISBN: 9780415309141
Jenkins ES & Langley G (2002). Adoption of animal welfare principles by UK regulators.
Langley G, Harding G, Hawkins P et al (2000). Volunteer studies replacing animal experiments in brain research. Report and recommendations of a Volunteers in Research & Testing Workshop.
Langley G, Broadhead C, Bottrill K et al (1999). Accessing information on the reduction, refinement and replacement of animal experiments. Report and recommendations of a Focus on Alternatives workshop.
Langley G (1998). Biopharmaceuticals — from animals or plants?
ATLA (editorial) 26:569-570.
Langley G (1997). Animal Tests and Alternatives: An Animal Protection Viewpoint. In: Animal Alternatives, Welfare and Ethics: Proceedings of the Second World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences.
Developments in Animal & Veterinary Sciences 27:347-354.
Lewis DFV & Langley GR (1996). A Validation Study of COMPACT and HazardExpert Techniques with 40 chemicals.
Mut Res 369:157-174.